Passenger Transport 2021

6.1 Transport of passengers by mode in EU 27, 1995-2018 (billion pkm)

Passenger Cars P2W Bus & Coach Railway Tram & Metro Air Sea Total
1995 3 284  108  468  313  64  237  26 4 500
1996 3 343  110  473  315  65  251  26 4 584
1997 3 412  114  476  313  65  267  26 4 673
1998 3 507  118  478  312  66  280  26 4 787
1999 3 611  121  479  317  67  291  25 4 912
2000 3 660  99  496  339  68  313  25 5 001
2001 3 734  103  496  340  69  311  25 5 077
2002 3 789  105  493  332  69  305  26 5 119
2003 3 826  108  496  327  70  317  26 5 169
2004 3 878  111  500  332  72  338  25 5 257
2005 3 839  115  498  340  73  361  25 5 250
2006 3 875  114  498  349  75  376  25 5 312
2007 3 921  110  508  353  76  392  24 5 385
2008 3 932  114  514  367  79  384  28 5 419
2009 4 009  112  490  359  79  363  23 5 435
2010 3 976  114  482  358  81  378  21 5 410
2011 3 944  117  486  364  81  409  19 5 420
2012 3 846  117  482  367  82  402  18 5 314
2013 3 903  117  480  372  82  405  18 5 377
2014 3 956  119  476  376  82  425  19 5 452
2015 4 051  119  486  382  83  451  18 5 589
2016 4 156  120  490  387  85  491  22 5 750
2017 4 210  114  470  401  86  536  21 5 838
2018 4 244  108  475  407  89  569  23 5 916
1995 -2018 29,2% -0,0% 1,4% 30,2% 40,2% 140,0% -11,1% 31,5%
per year 1,1% -0,0% 0,1% 1,2% 1,5% 3,9% -0,5% 1,2%
2000-2018 15,9% 9,0% -4,4% 20,3% 31,9% 81,7% -5,4% 18,3%
per year 0,8% 0,5% -0,2% 1,0% 1,5% 3,4% -0,3% 0,9%
2017-2018 0,8% -4,8% 1,0% 1,6% 3,5% 6,2% 9,4% 1,3%

Source: EC
Notes:
Air and Sea: only domestic and intra-EU-27 transport; estimates for air and for sea based on Eurostat data. The time series for maritime activity from 1995 to 2004 and for aviation activity from 1995 to 2007 have been recalibrated by DG MOVE in line with the new EU-27 figures to avoid break in series.

P2W: Powered two-wheelers

6.2 Evolution of passenger transport by mode in EU 27, 1995-2018

Source: EC
Notes :
Air and Sea: only domestic and intra-EU-27 transport; estimates for air and for sea based on Eurostat data. The time series for maritime activity from 1995 to 2004 and for aviation activity from 1995 to 2007 have been recalibrated by DG MOVE in line with the new EU-27 figures to avoid break in series.

6.3 Passenger transport modal split in EU 27, 2018 (pkm in %)

Source: EC
Notes
Air and Sea: only domestic and intra-EU-27 transport; estimates for air and for sea based on Eurostat data. The time series for maritime activity from 1995 to 2004 and for aviation activity from 1995 to 2007 have been recalibrated by DG MOVE in line with the new EU-27 figures to avoid break in series.
P2W: Powered two-wheelers

6.4 Modal split of passenger transport on land by country in EU countries, 2018 ( billion pkm and pkm in %)

Passenger cars*
(billion pkm)
Passenger  cars (%) Buses and coaches
(billion pkm)
Buses and coaches (%)   Railways
(billion pkm)
Railways (%) Urban rail*
(tram & metro)
(billion pkm)
Urban rail
(tram & metro) (%)
TOTAL
(billion pkm)
BE 107,3 80,72 13,5 10,17 10,7 8,06 1,4 0,01 132,95
BG 57,2 82,14 9,9 14,18 1,5 2,12 1,1 0,02 69,70
CZ 78,0 66,61 18,1 15,48 10,2 8,73 10,7 0,09 117,05
DK 60,7 81,64 7,1 9,56 6,2 8,33 0,4 0,00 74,39
DE 920,2 83,78 62,5 5,69 98,1 8,93 17,6 0,02 1.098,40
EE 13,3 79,97 2,8 16,71 0,4 2,50 0,1 0,01 16,68
IE 57,2 81,36 10,5 14,94 2,3 3,25 0,3 0,00 70,26
EL 103,4 81,58 20,5 16,21 1,1 0,87 1,7 0,01 126,74
ES 340,6 83,08 32,2 7,85 28,4 6,93 8,7 0,02 409,89
FR 757,1 82,06 57,6 6,24 97,1 10,53 10,8 0,01 922,54
HR 25,6 83,21 3,8 12,49 0,7 2,43 0,6 0,02 30,76
IT 722,9 81,39 103,0 11,59 55,5 6,25 6,9 0,01 888,22
CY 6,8 81,10 1,6 18,90 8,38
LV 15,3 84,00 2,2 11,87 0,6 3,44 0,1 0,01 18,16
LT 30,1 90,41 2,8 8,52 0,4 1,06 33,31
LU 7,8 82,92 1,2 12,39 0,4 4,69 0,2 9,45
HU 63,9 68,54 18,9 20,22 7,8 8,33 2,7 0,03 93,29
MT 2,7 82,47 0,6 17,53 3,24
NL 144,7 85,17 5,3 3,09 18,9 11,12 1,0 0,01 169,89
AT 78,5 71,93 10,3 9,40 13,2 11,40 7,2 0,07 109,20
PL 212,4 77,99 34,5 12,68 21,0 6,70 4,4 0,02 272,36
PT 95,5 87,47 7,9 7,26 4,6 4,10 1,2 0,01 109,13
RO 103,8 75,21 19,9 14,44 5,6 4,50 8,7 0,06 138,02
SI 27,5 86,43 3,8 11,78 0,6 2,50 31,83
SK 28,5 73,40 6,2 16,09 3,8 7,00 0,3 0,01 38,77
FI 66,8 83,51 8,0 10,00 4,5 5,20 0,7 0,01 79,99
SE 116,0 81,54 10,0 7,02 13,5 8,90 2,7 0,02 142,27
UK 672,7 84,80 36,8 4,63 69,7 8,00 14,1 0,02 793,28
EU 28 4916,53 81,83% 511,38 8,51% 476,89 7,94% 103,55 1,72% 6.008,35

Source: national statistics, International Transport Forum, Eurostat, estimates, study for DG Energy and Transport
Notes:
Data is not harmonised and therefore not fully comparable. 2018 data may be provisional. Data sometimes includes activity of foreign vehicles performed within the country, therefore EU aggregates might be affected by double-counting. Generally vans are not considered in this table, but there may be exceptions.
FR: passenger-km include transport activity on the territory of vehicles not registered in France. Includes foreign vans.
UK: data refer to Great Britain only; include pkm by vans
DE: includes DE-E: 1970=24.5, 1980=56.0, 1990=90.3
DK: figures exclude activity of vans with a mass higher than 2000 kg.
PL: estimated activity

6.5 Passenger vehicles in EU and selected countries, 2018

Stock of registered
passenger cars
(thousand)
Stock of registered
PTW
(thousand)
Stock of registered buses & coaches (thousand)
BE 5868,59 649,22 16,17
BG 2773,33 190,00 20,82
CZ 5748,00 1132,08 22,03
DK 2594,47 199,23 13,16
DE 47095,78 4438,60 80,52
EE 746,50 54,50 5,00
IE 2127,83 40,20 10,94
EL 5406,55 1609,92 26,48
ES 24074,15 5393,20 64,91
FR 32034,00 3034,00 100,71
HR 1666,41 157,36 5,88
IT 39018,17 9354,74 100,04
CY 550,70 39,76 3,08
LV 693,39 55,90 4,63
LT 1430,52 45,27 7,52
LU 415,15 30,64 2,04
HU 3641,82 176,07 19,13
MT 300,14 27,33 2,11
NL 8530,58 1895,92 9,72
AT 4978,85 847,36 10,04
PL 23429,00 2852,80 119,00
PT 5282,97 616,08 15,49
RO 6452,54 136,44 51,80
SI 1143,15 130,94 2,83
SK 2321,61 140,45 9,07
FI 3494,84 613,74 18,52
SE 4870,78 673,72 14,38
UK 32493,30 1265,10 112,10
EU 28 269183,11 35800,54 868,12
ME 206,45 5,70 1,46
MK 415,06 13,34 3,20
AL 460,03 33,66 7,15
RS 1999,77 64,90 9,88
TR 12398,19 3211,33 706,05

Source: EC
Notes:
National vehicle stock data do not always include all powered two-wheelers and are therefore not fully comparable between countries.
Tricycles and quads are sometimes included in the data.
Data include buses, coaches, minibuses and sometimes also trolleybuses.
Taxis are usually included.
Stock at end of year, except for BE: 1 August
FR: include private cars < 15 years old

6.6 Motorisation in EU and selected countries, 2018

Motorisation (number of passenger cars per 1.000 inhabitants)
BE 512
BG 396
CZ 540
DK 447
DE 567
EE 563
IE 434
EL 504
ES 513
FR 478
HR 409
IT 646
CY 629
LV 361
LT 512
LU 676
HU 373
MT 608
NL 494
AT 562
PL 617
PT 514
RO 332
SI 549
SK 426
FI 633
SE 476
UK 488
EU28 524
ME 332
MK 200
AL 161
RS 287
TR 151

Source: EC
Notes: Passenger car stock at end of year n divided by the population on 1 January of year n+1

6.7 Passenger cars per 1.000 inhabitants in EU countries, 2019

Motorisation (number of passenger cars per 1.000 inhabitants)
BE 511
BG 407
CZ 554
DK 455
DE 574
EE 598
IE 454
EL 504
ES 519
FR 482
HR 425
IT 663
CY 645
LV 381
LT 536
LU 681
HU 390
MT 597
NL 499
AT :
PL 642
PT 530
RO 357
SI 556
SK 439
FI 642
SE 473

Source: Eurostat

6.8 Motorcycle registrations in EU countries, 2010-2019

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
AT 21.510 22.750 24.808 26.020 25.192 24.891 29.763 24.893 25.955 27.654
BE 24.270 25.043 23.921 20.648 20.681 21.577 23.621 21.390 23.932 24.205
BG 127 173 116 169
CY
CZ 12.102 12.442 13.424 14.086 12.330 13.943 15.134
DE 122.394 127.009 127.603 129.756 141.623 151.661 174.624 140.667 156.110 166.676
DK 3.258 2.032 1.983 1.869 1.936 2.417 3.139 2.806
EE 244 299 364 409 449 489 609 511 595 721
EL 59.638 44.785 31.805 28.522 30.951 32.468 38.632 27.473 32.575 37.168
ES 134.297 119.438 97.944 92.409 111.463 132.539 155.004 136.180 159.872 177.037
FI 6.054 5.692 4.986 3.967 3.467 3.157 3.022 2.829 3.203 3.323
FR 198.086 185.122 169.644 148.203 153.324 153.242 163.335 162.808 177.247 197.470
HR 1.510 1.511 1.811 2.216 2.779 3.237
HU 2.453 2.091 1.957 1.989 1.886 2.093 2.204 2.274 3.051 4.061
IE 1.042 831 663 441 800 1.022 1.470 1.311 1.371 1.718
IT 306.307 254.906 206.303 154.100 156.539 172.066 195.405 204.579 219.744 231.712
LT 230 281 224 241 294 294 390 367 414 557
LU 1.255 1.306 1.201 1.566 1.734 1.654 1.783 1.838 2.006 2.130
LV 278 472 494 477 589 595 642 624 791 1.022
MT
NL 12.848 11.660 10.611 9.570 10.667 11.673 12.855 13.057 13.474 14.378
PL 8.719 8.957 7.760 7.394 9.848 23.865 25.823 15.025 14.550 19.200
PT 18.896 18.937 17.180 14.594 15.424 17.611 19.760 24.809 28.326 29.857
RO 558 469 555 521 593 648 952 1.115 1.525 2.159
SE 9.023 8.219 7.602 7.780 8.378 9.422 13.220 9.716 2.347 2.333
SK 2.018 1.660 1.643 1.292 1.707 1.855 2.074 2.269 5.280 5.745
SI 1.960 1.920 2.840 5.309 5.565 4.923 10.367 10.754
UK 81.397 79.721 80.874 81.646 91.509 105.717 119.889 97.713 100.411 101.273
EU 28 1.029.160 935.562 822.172 748.529 803.122 891.369 1.009.678 913.723 999.868 1.079.524

Source: ACEM

6.9 Transport of passengers per mode - Comparison EU 27/World

Passenger transport (billion pkm) EU 27 (2018) USA (2018) Japan (2017) China (2018) Russia (2018)
Passenger car 4.243,8 7.804,1 928,0
Bus, trolley-bus and coach 474,6 624,7 69,8 122,5
Railway 407,2 37,5 437 1.414,7 129,5
Tram and metro 89,5 24,6 48,4
Waterborne 23,4 0,8 3,3 8,0 0,7
Air (domestic/intra EU) 569,3 1.175,5 102,0 1.071,2 259,4

Source: Eurostat, Japan Statistics Bureau, US Bureau of Transportation Statisitics, Goskom STAT (Russia), National Bureau of Statistics of China, International Transport Forum, estimates (in italics)
Notes:
USA: Including light trucks / vans
China: passenger-kilometers of highways including buses and coaches
Japan: included in railway pkm

6.10 Motorisation: Comparison EU 27/World, 2018 ( cars/1000 inhabitants)

Source: EC
Japan: 2017 data

6.11 Passenger Transport volume and modal split 1995-2018 ( Billion passenger-kilometres)

Source: EC
Japan: 2017 data